Electric vehicle – IN Main Components of Electric Vehicle

By Annayshi Mitra 13 Min Read

An electric vehicle apart from traditional cars is its electric motor. The regenerative brake system of an electric motor is a crucial component. By transforming the vehicle’s kinetic energy into another form and storing it for later use, this system slows down the moving object. DC motors and AC motors are the two main categories of motors.

Power inverter

It converts battery-generated DC electricity to AC power. Furthermore, it converts the AC current produced by regenerative braking into a DC current. Additionally, the batteries are recharged via this. The inverter has the ability to alter the

Power Port

The electric car is connected to an external source through the charging connector. The battery pack is being charged. Sometimes the vehicle’s front or back is where the charging port is positioned.

Built-in charger

The charging port’s AC supply is changed to a DC source using the onboard charger. Inside the vehicle, a built-in charger is there. It keeps track of several battery properties and regulates the amount of electricity that flows into the battery pack.


An electric car’s operation is controlled by a power electronics controller. It controls how electrical energy is transferred from batteries to electric motors. The driver’s chosen pedal controls both the car’s speed and the frequency of voltage variations sent to the motor. It regulates the torque generated.

Auxiliary batteries

In electric automobiles, the accessories’ electrical power comes from auxiliary batteries. The auxiliary batteries will keep the automobile charged if the primary battery fails. It stops the voltage drop brought on by an engine start from having an impact on the power system.

Thermal system for cooling

The thermal management system is in charge of preserving an operational temperature for an electric vehicle’s primary parts, including the electric motor, controller, etc. To achieve optimal performance, it works even when charging. It makes use of pressured air cooling, cooling systems, and thermoelectric cooling.


Through a gearbox, it is utilised to transmit the mechanical power from the electric motor to the wheels. Electric vehicles have the benefit of not requiring multi-speed gearboxes. To prevent energy loss, transmission efficiency needs to be good.


As complex as it sounds, electrical cars have simple working mechanisms and user-friendly interfaces. The switch to a sustainable lifestyle is just a pedal away!

How an Electric Car Works?

Modern civilization is placing more and more emphasis on improvements in fuel economy, adherence to environmental standards, and worldwide ecological sustainability measures.

Modernity is embracing electric vehicles, which have caught the attention of drivers who are concerned about the environment throughout the world due to their effectiveness and lack of dependency on fossil fuels.

Beyond the environmental aspect, drivers are lured to electric cars (EVs) for their low operating expenses, particularly electricity, which is significantly less expensive than gasoline and diesel. 

How do electric cars function?

The following occurs when the vehicle’s accelerator pedal is depressed:

  • The motor controller (inverter), which serves as the operation’s brain, analyses input and determines how much battery pack power is required.
  • Depending on how firmly the pedal is pressed, the inverter then transfers a certain quantity of electrical energy to the motor.
  • Utilizing electromagnets and wire coils, the motor transforms electrical energy into mechanical (rotational) energy.
  • Inside the gearbox, the motor’s output shaft revolves.
  • The wheels revolve and the vehicle moves as a result of the transmission converting this rotation into a speed that can be used by the remainder of the powertrain 

Power Source

The battery pack is a vehicle electric vehicle’s most important component. It is the largest and priciest part of the car and ultimately decides however much power and range it will have. The battery pack is made up of a number of individual batteries that are connected together; this can range from 5 to 25 batteries. Each battery has hundreds of individual cells and is often taken from electric vehicles that are in manufacturing. The battery pack will be kept in a specially made metal battery box that is made to fit inside the vintage car’s original engine compartment. A second battery compartment can be placed somewhere else if more batteries are needed for a greater range.

Controller/Power Inverter

Current flow from the batteries is converted by the inverter to alternating current, which is then sent to the motor. Consider it as the connection between the battery and the motor; without it, the motor would continuously run at full speed.


A battery pack powers the electric motor found in electric cars. The biggest benefit of electric cars is that they produce no emissions and are environmentally beneficial. Additionally, they don’t use any fossil fuels, thus they power the automobile using a sustainable source of energy. With just 54,577 units sold in the month of February 2022, the worldwide automotive population has begun the shift to electric vehicles. We are presently seeing an EV renaissance due to a number of factors, including the growing price of gasoline, the falling cost of EV component parts, and a rise in the acceptance of EVs by the general public. The best way to analyse and understand the functioning of an electric car is by understanding all the bits and pieces of the car itself. Here is a guide to what goes inside the car.

How Do Electric Cars Operate?

If the gas pedal is depressed while driving:

  • A controller uses electrical energy from batteries and inverters and controls it.
  • The inverter then delivers a certain quantity of electrical energy to the motor when the controller is set (according to the depth of pressure on the pedal)
  • Electrical energy is transformed into mechanical energy by an electric motor (rotation)
  • The motor’s rotor turns the gearbox, which causes the wheels to revolve and propel the vehicle forward.

The parts and pieces

All small parts and more may an electrical vehicle an efficient and salient product to use. Here are the details of what does what, and how it all works together: 

Vehicle battery pack

Electric vehicle battery (EVB) is another name for the traction battery pack. It fuels an electric vehicle’s electric motors. The battery functions as a method for storing electricity. DC current is used to store energy. With more kW in the battery, the range will increase. The battery’s design affects both its lifespan and how well it works. A traction battery pack is predicted to last 320000 kilometres.

Converter for DC-DC

A steady voltage is delivered by the traction battery pack. But the criteria for various vehicle components vary. The battery’s output power is dispersed to the necessary level by the DC-DC converter. Additionally, it supplies the power needed to charge the backup battery.

Electric motor

The major part of an electric vehicle is the traction motor. Electrical energy is transformed into kinetic energy by the motor. The wheels are turned by this energy. The major element that sets 

The car’s throttle and battery monitoring system will both be connected to this motor controller.

Since inverters require a lot of current flow, especially while driving quickly, they are also connected to the battery cooling system, allowing coolant to regulate the warmth.

The electrical vehicle inverter may also convert alternating power to direct current when braking, a process known as regenerative braking, which can then be used to replenish the battery.

Electric engine

The motor moves the wheels and propulsion of the vehicle by converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Motors come in a wide variety; some run on direct current (DC), while others use alternating current (AC). AC motors are used most frequently in electric vehicle conversions because they are more effective. A motor is essentially a huge electromagnet that rotates as a result of the magnets inside it being attracted to and repelling each other.

The transmission (gearbox), which can either be the conventional one or a single-speed device particularly made for electric power, is turned by the motor. 


A charger is a device that transforms AC from the grid into DC, which then charges the batteries of electric vehicles, which are where the electricity is stored.

Electric car chargers must be intelligent in order to guarantee that the battery pack is charged at the proper rate. The batteries may be charged wherever the automobile sits, whether that be at home, in a parking lot, or at a highway service station, thanks to a charger fitted inside the vehicle.

The power of a charger has a significant impact on how quickly a car will charge. But if the power supply is too little, not even the quickest charger will be able to charge quickly.

Converter for DC/DC

A device called a DC/DC converter converts higher-voltage DC power from a high-voltage battery system to the regular 12V battery needed to run the original 12V system.

For instance, this system includes the lights, wipers, and central locking system. It implies that the car’s 12V system does not need to be rewired during conversion, saving on a costly expense.

Infrared System (Cooling)

While many components are air-cooled, cooling is still required for the batteries and motor controller (inverter). The components of this thermal system include a tiny radiator, a fan, a coolant pump, and pipelines to maintain the coolant’s circulation. In a closed-loop system, heat is transferred from the heat-sensitive elements by means of fluid.

Adapter Port

In most cases, the charging port will be installed where the original petrol filler was. It is directly connected to the vehicle’s charging system, which then charges the high-voltage battery pack.

The Type 2 connectors used in electric conversions in the UK and Europe are often standardised to guarantee that the automobile may be charged in several locations without the need to carry along costly cables or adapters.

Conclusion of Electric Car Conversions

The future of automobile transportation lies with electric cars. A paradigm shift in both thought and technology is required for electric vehicles to displace gas-powered automobiles.

Electric vehicles will become more and more accessible and common as technology advances. We hope that this information was helpful because there are numerous different components that go into making electric cars function, and the majority of these elements are unfamiliar to most drivers.

Share this Article
Leave a comment